Distillation and sublimation are both methods used to separate a mixture of substances based on their physical properties. However, they have some key differences:
State change: Distillation involves separating substances by boiling them and condensing the vapors, while sublimation involves changing a solid directly into a gas without first becoming a liquid.
Composition of mixture: Distillation is typically used to separate a mixture of liquids with different boiling points, while sublimation is typically used to separate a mixture of solids with different sublimation points.
Equipment: Distillation usually requires a distillation apparatus, which includes a distillation flask, a condenser, and other accessories, while sublimation can be carried out using simpler equipment like a sublimation apparatus, which consists of a sublimation chamber and a cold finger.
Applications: Distillation is commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings to separate and purify chemicals, while sublimation is often used to separate organic compounds and to purify solids such as iodine and napthalene.